Saturday, February 22, 2014

Settlement of Boundary between Manipur and Angami, 1841 - 42

Settlement of Boundary between Manipur and Angami, 1841 - 42

The boundary between the Angamis and Manipur was to be finally settled to prevent irritation on that side, and a road was to be opened to Sammoogoodting from the plains. A nominal tribute was to be taken from the Nagas as soon as they could be brought to consent to its payment. To arrange the boundary, Lieutenant Biggs marched across the hills in the cold weather of 1841-42. It was decided, in conference with Captain Gordon, Political Agent at Manipur that “Commencing from the upper part of the Jeeree River, the western frontier of Manipur, the line of boundary formed (i) by the Dootighur Mountain, or that range of hills in which the Mookroo River takes its rise, east on to the Barak River; (ii) by the Barak River up to where it is joined by the Toyphani River which flows along the eastern line of the Popolongmai Hill; (3) by the Toyphani River up to its source on the Burrail range of Mountains; and (4) by the summit or water-pent of the Burrail range on to the source of the Mow River flowing north from that point towards Assam, was the best boundary between Manipur and the Angami country. Firstly, because the Angami Naga and all the inferior tribes subject to their influence occupy the mountainous part north of the boundary here given, and have together been the perpetrators of all the acts of aggression which have been committed of late years both in Cachar and Manipur.

Secondly because along the western portion of the boundary here proposed, the whole of the villages south of it, which were before near this frontier, having been from time to time destroyed by the tribes from the north, and their inhabitants obliged for protection to locate themselves further south a considerable tract of mountainous country in this direction is completely deserted. Thirdly because along the portion of the boundary here proposed to the east of Popolongmai the Angamis tribes are separated from the Nagas of Manipur by a lofty range of mountains across which little, if any, communication takes place. Fourthly because the Manipur Government not having at present any control or authority over the villages to the north, and the Angamis not possession any influence over those to the south of this proposed boundary throughout its whole extent, its adoption would not disjoin connected tribes on separate any village from a jurisdiction to which it has been long attached, as would be the case where any portion of the country north of the line suggested made over to the Manipur Government’s.

Ningthee Agreement, 1834, Transfer of Kabaw Valley

Ningthee Agreement, 1834, Transfer of Kabaw Valley

1st : The British Commissioners, Major Grant and Captain Pemberton under instructions from the Right Honourable, the Governor General in Council, agree to make over to the Woandauk Maha Mingyan Rajah and Tsarudanieks MyookyantHou, Commissioners appointed by the King of Ava, the Town of Tummo, Khumbab, Surjail and all other villages in the Kubo Valley, Ungoching Hills and the strip of valley running between the eastern foot and the western bank of the Ningthi Khyendwin river.

2nd : The British Commissioners will withdraw the Munnipooree Thannas now stationed within this tract of the country, and make over immediate possession of it to the Burmese Commissioners on certain conditions.

3rd : The conditions are that they will agree to the boundaries which may be pointed out to them by the British Commissioners, and will respect and refrain from any interference, direct or indirect, with the people residing on the Munnipooree side of those boundaries.

4th : The boundaries are as follows. The eastern foot of the chain of mountains which rise immediately from the western side of the plain of the Kubo Valley. Within this line is included Moreh and all the country to the westward of it.

On the south, a line extending from the eastern foot of the same hills at the point where the river, called by the Burmahs Nansawing, and by the Munnipoorees Numsanlung, enters the plain, up to the sources and across the hills due west down to the Kethe-Khyaung.
On the north, the line of boundary will begin at the foot of the same hills at the northern extremity of the Kubo Valley, and pass due north up to the first range of hills, east of that upon which stand the villages of Chaotao, Noanghue, Noanghur of the tribe called by the Munnipoorees Loohooppa, and by the Burmahs Lagumsauny, now tributary to Munnipoor.
The Burmese commissioners hereby promise that they will give orders to the Burmese officers, who will remain in charge of the territory now made over to them, not in any way to interfere with the Khyens or other inhabitants living on the Munnipoor side of the lines of boundary above described, and the British Commissioners also promise that the Munnipoorees shall be ordered not in any way to interfere with the Khyens or other inhabitants of any description living on the Burmah side of the boundaries now fixed.

Sunnyachil Ghat, Ningthee, January 9, 1834
Langthabal Agreement, 1834
Compensation for Kabaw Valley

Major Grant and Captain Pemberton, under instructions from the Right Honourable the Governor General in Council having made over the Kubo Valley to the Burmese Commissioners deputed from Ava are authorized to state.
1st : That it is the intension of the Supreme Government to grant a monthly stipend of five hundred sicca Rupees to the Rajah of Munnipoore, to commence from the ninth day of January, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty Four, the date of which the transfer of Kubo took place, as shown in the Agreement mutually signed by the British Commissioners.
2nd : It is to be distinctly understood that should and circumstances hereafter arise by which the portion of territory lately made over to Ava again reverts to Munnipore, the allowance now granted by the British Government will cease from the date of such reversion.

F.J. Grant, Major

R.B. Pemberton, Captain
Langthabal, Mannipoore
January 25, 1834

Anglo-Manipur Treaty, 1833

Agreement between Rajah Gumbheer Singh and Commissioner F.J. Grant.

The Governor General and Supreme Council of Hindoosthan declare as follows:-
With regard to the two ranges of Hills, the one called the Kalanaga Range, and the other called Noonjai Range, and the western bend of the Barak, we will give up all claim on the part of the Honourable Company thereunto and we will make these hills over in possession to the Rajah and give him the line of the Jeeree and the western bend of the Barak as a boundary, provided that the Rajah agrees to the whole of what in written in this paper, which is as follows:-
1st : The Rajah will agreeably to instruction received, without delay, remove his thanna from Chandrapore and establish it on the eastern bank of the Jeeree.
2nd : The Rajah will in no way obstruct the trade carried on between the two countries by Bengali or Munnipooree merchants. He will exact heavy duties, and he will make a monopoly of no articles of merchandise whatsoever.
3rd : The Rajah will in no way prevent the Naga inhabiting the Kalanaga and Noon jai Ranges of Hills from selling or bartering ginger, cotton, pepper and every other article, the produce of their country in the plains of Cachar, at the Banskandee and Oodharban bazars, as has been their custom.
4th : With regard to the road commencing from the eastern bank of Jeeree and continued via Kalanaga and Kowpoom, as far as the valley of Munnipore after this road has been finished, the Rajah will keep it in repairs so as to enable laden bullocks to pass during the cold and dry seasons. Further, at the making of the road, if British officers be sent to examine as superintend the same the Rajah will agree to everything these officers may suggest.
5th : With reference to the intercourse already existing between the territories of the British Government and those of the Rajah, if the intercourse be further extended, it will be well in every respect and it will be highly advantageous to both the Rajah and his country. In order, therefore that this may speedily take place, the Rajah, at the requisition of the British Government, will furnish a quota of Nagas to assist at the construction of the road.
6th: In the event of war with the Burmese, if troops be sent to Munnipore either to protect that country as to advance beyond the Ningthee, the Rajah, at the requisition of the British Government, will provide Hill porters to assist in transporting the ammunition and baggage of such troops.
7th: The Rajah will be answerable for all the ammunition he receives from the British Government, and will, for the information of the British Government, give in every month a statement of expenditure to the British Officer attached to the Levy.

I, Shree Joot Gumbheer Singh of Munnipore, agree to all that is written above in this paper sent by the Supreme Council.

Geo. Gordon, Lieut.       
Adjutant, Gumbheer Singh’s Levy           

Shree Joot Rajah
Gumbheer Singh

F.J. Grant

The Yandaboo Treaty, February 24, 1826

The Yandaboo Treaty, February 24, 1826

Treaty of Peace between East India Company and the King of Ava, settled by Major General Sir Archibald Campbells and Senior Commissioner in Pegu and Ava.

Article No. 1
There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the Honourable Company on the one part and His Majesty the King of Ava on the other.

Article No. 2
His Majesty the King of Ava renounces all claims upon and will abstain from all future interference with the principality of Assam and its dependencies, and also with the contiguous petty states of Cachar and Jyntea. With regard to Manipur, it is stipulated that should Gumbheer Singh desire to return that country, he shall be recognized by the King of Ava as Rajah thereof.

Largeen Meonja              
(Woong bee)

Archibald Campbell

Swagum Woon

 (T.C. Robertson)
Captain Royal Navy

(Hy. D. Chads)
Captain Royal Navy